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All You Need To Know About TDS on Salary

Team AckoJan 18, 2024

Navigating the labyrinthine world of taxation can be daunting, especially when understanding the nuances of Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) on salary. As an integral part of the Indian taxation system, TDS serves as a preemptive collection mechanism, ensuring that Tax is collected right at the source of income. For salaried individuals, a portion of their monthly earnings is deducted and remitted to the government by their employers.

This guide aims to demystify TDS on salary by providing a detailed understanding of its various components, including its calculation, applicable exemptions, and necessary compliance measures. Whether you're an employer responsible for deducting and remitting TDS or an employee seeking to understand how it impacts your take-home pay, this comprehensive guide is here to help.TDS on Salary.png



What is TDS on Salary?

TDS on salary refers to the tax amount an employer deducts from an employee's gross salary before disbursing it. It is a form of advance tax collection aimed at easing the year-end tax liability for the employee. The deducted amount is then remitted to the government by the employer.

Key Points

  • Mandatory for Employers: It is the legal obligation of the employer to deduct TDS if the employee's annual salary exceeds the basic exemption limit.

  • Form 16: At the end of the financial year, the employer provides a TDS certificate, known as Form 16, to the employee. This document serves as proof of the TDS deductions and is essential for filing income tax returns.

  • Section 192: TDS on salary is governed by Section 192 of the Income Tax Act, 1961. It outlines the rates and computation methods for TDS deductions.

  • Payment to Government: The employer is responsible for depositing the deducted TDS amount to the government within a stipulated time frame.

How is TDS Calculated?

Understanding the calculation of TDS on salary is crucial for employers and employees. It helps in planning finances and ensures compliance with tax laws.

Basic Components of Salary

Before calculating TDS, it's essential to understand the basic components of a salary, which may include:

  • Basic Salary

  • House Rent Allowance (HRA)

  • Special Allowances

  • Bonuses

Steps for TDS Calculation

  • Determine Gross Salary: Add all the components, including basic salary, allowances, and bonuses, to arrive at the gross annual salary.

  • Apply Exemptions: Deduct exemptions like HRA, standard deduction, and professional Tax to get the net taxable income.

  • Tax Slabs: Apply the income tax slabs to the net taxable income to calculate the annual tax liability.

  • Monthly TDS: Divide the annual tax liability by 12 to get the monthly TDS amount.

Example of How TDS is Calculated

ComponentAmount (₹)
Gross Annual Salary12,00,000
Standard Deduction50,000
Professional Tax2,500
Net Taxable Income9,47,500
Annual Tax Liability (20%)1,89,500
Monthly TDS15,791.67

Exemptions and Deductions

Understanding Exemptions

Exemptions are specific components of your salary that are not subject to tax. These are legally recognized allowances that reduce your overall tax liability.

House Rent Allowance (HRA)

HRA is a significant component of a salary structure. It is partially or wholly exempt from Tax under Section 10(13A) of the Income Tax Act 1961. The exemption is calculated based on specific conditions, such as the city of residence and the rent paid.

Standard Deduction

Introduced in the 2018 budget, the standard deduction of ₹50,000 applies to all salaried individuals. A flat amount deducted from the gross income reduces the overall taxable income.

Leave Travel Allowance (LTA)

LTA is another exemption under Section 10(5) of the Income Tax Act 1961. It covers the travel expenses incurred by an employee when they are on leave from work. However, it doesn't cover accommodation or food expenses.

Deductions are amounts that can be legally subtracted from your gross income to figure out the taxable income. These are usually investments or specific expenditures that are encouraged by the government.

Section 80C

Under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act 1961, investments like Employee Provident Fund (EPF), Public Provident Fund (PPF), and Life Insurance Premiums are deductible up to ₹1.5 lakhs.

Section 80D

Section 80D of the Income Tax Act 1961 allows for deducting premiums paid for health insurance for yourself and your family.

Section 80G

If you have donated to charitable organisations, you can claim deductions under Section 80G of the Income Tax Act 1961. The extent of the deduction depends on the organisation and the amount donated.

Compliance and Documentation

Employer's Responsibility

As an employer, it's not just about deducting TDS but also about remitting it to the government within the stipulated time. The due date for the TDS deposit is the 7th of the following month. Failure to do so can result in penalties.

Quarterly Returns

Employers must also file quarterly TDS returns using Form 24Q. This form provides details of the TDS deducted and deposited and is crucial for reconciling the TDS certificates provided to the employees.

Employee's Responsibility

Form 16

At the end of the financial year, the employer provides a TDS certificate known as Form 16. This document is essential for filing income tax returns as it contains comprehensive details of the salary earned and the TDS deducted.

Income Tax Returns

Using Form 16, employees should file their income tax returns before the due date to avoid penalties. It serves as proof of their income and the Tax paid and is essential for financial transactions like loan applications.

Wrapping up!

Understanding the complexities of TDS on salary is a multifaceted necessity beyond mere legal compliance. For employers, it's an exercise in organisational integrity, impacting their standing with taxation authorities and their relationship with employees. Accurate and timely TDS deductions and submissions can significantly enhance employee trust and retention.

A thorough grasp of TDS mechanisms is the cornerstone of effective financial planning for employees. It empowers individuals to optimise their tax liabilities through informed investment choices and prepares them for future financial responsibilities and milestones. In essence, mastering the nuances of TDS on salary is an indispensable skill that benefits employers and employees, serving as a foundation for transparent, legally compliant, and financially sound practices.


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