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Vaccination Chart for babies in India

Dr. BhavikaNov 25, 2022

The process of vaccination in India begins from the day of birth itself. Vaccines have been the mainstay of controlling the spread of several diseases. To standardise this process, a vaccination chart for babies in India was prepared. These are vaccines that are a must for all children. There are also a lot of additional vaccines that some paediatricians recommend in selected cases. Read ahead to know detailed information about the vaccination chart for babies in India.

Vaccination Chart For Babies In India

Contents

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What are vaccines?

Vaccines are biological components that are amongst the most useful and cost-effective ways of providing immunity to a child against a large spectrum of infectious diseases. Vaccines have helped eradicate dreaded diseases like smallpox, and more recently, helped in achieving the elimination of polio and neonatal & maternal tetanus in India. These are conditions that killed millions across the globe.

Why are vaccines important?

Vaccination has proven to be a key factor in determining a baby’s survival. It decreases infant mortality, contributes to an undisturbed development process, and decreases the socioeconomic burden of diseases on the family. For every family, the health of the child is extremely important. Vaccination is an easy way to protect a child from common infections.

How do vaccines work?

Vaccines evoke an immune response from your body by introducing it to the disease-causing agent (either inactivated, or a small component of it). This causes your body to produce an immune response against the disease without making you sick. The immune system is capable of ‘immune memory’, by which it is able to remember the disease-causing agent. When you are exposed to the disease in the future, your body is already equipped to fight the infection because of this memory.

Vaccination in India

Over the last two decades, India as a nation has made significant progress in immunising its newborns. Several government initiatives, subsidisation, provision of vaccines for free, and widespread vaccine awareness have enhanced preventive health coverage for children throughout this nation.

Despite all these efforts, here are some shocking facts to highlight how far we still have to go when it comes to immunisation in India:

  • UNICEF reports that only 65% of children receive full immunisation during their first year of life. 

  • Statistics show that in India, nearly one million children die before their fifth birthday. 

  • One out of every 4 deaths is due to pneumonia or diarrhoea, which remain the two leading infectious causes of child death. However, many of them can be saved by vaccines, breastfeeding, and access to care. 

  • WHO reports nearly 22 million children do not receive proper and complete schedules of vaccines; the number keeps increasing yearly.

The Government of India as well as the Indian Academy of Pediatrics have released detailed Immunisation Schedules based on years of research. These schedules provide information on what vaccines are to be given at which specific time.

Taking vaccines at the right time is very important to ensure that they work correctly.

National Immunisation Schedule

  • The National Immunisation Schedule (NIS) is implemented by the Government of India.

  • It is implemented free of cost throughout the country.

  • It includes the bare minimum of all the vaccines a child must definitely receive.

National Immunisation Schedule (NIS) for Infants, Children and Pregnant Women

Vaccine

When to give

Dose

Route

Site

For Pregnant Women

For Pregnant Women

For Pregnant Women

For Pregnant Women

For Pregnant Women

TT-1

Early in pregnancy

0.5 ml

Intramuscular

Upper Arm

TT-2

4 weeks after TT-1*

0.5 ml

Intramuscular

Upper Arm

TT- Booster

If received 2 TT doses in a pregnancy within the last 3 yrs*

0.5 ml

Intramuscular

Upper Arm

For Infants

For Infants

For Infants

For Infants

For Infants

BCG

At birth or as early as possible till one year of age

0.1ml (0.05ml until 1 month age)

Intradermal

Left Upper Arm

Hepatitis B - Birth dose

At birth or as early as possible within 24 hours

0.5 ml

Intramuscular

Antero-lateral side of mid-thigh

OPV-0

At birth or as early as possible within the first 15 days

2 drops

Oral

Oral

OPV 1, 2 & 3

At 6 weeks, 10 weeks & 14 weeks

(OPV can be given till 5 years of age)

2 drops

Oral

Oral

Pentavalent1, 2 & 3

At 6 weeks, 10 weeks & 14 weeks (can be given till one year of age)

0.5 ml

Intramuscular

Antero-lateral side of mid-thigh

Rotavirus#

At 6 weeks, 10 weeks & 14 weeks (can be given till one year of age)

5 drops

Oral

Oral

IPV

Two fractional dose at 6 and 14 weeks of age

0.1 ml

Intradermal two fractional dose

Intradermal:

Right upper arm

Measles /MR 1st Dose$

9 completed months-12 months.

(can be given till 5 years of age)

0.5 ml

Subcutaneous

Right upper Arm

JE - 1**

9 completed months-12 months.

0.5 ml

Subcutaneous

Left upper Arm

Vitamin A (1st dose)

At 9 completed months with measles Rubella

1 ml

( 1 lakh IU)

Oral

Oral

For Children

For Children

For Children

For Children

For Children

DPT booster-1

16-24 months

0.5 ml

Intramuscular

Antero-lateral side of mid-thigh

Measles/ MR 2nd dose $

16-24 months

0.5 ml

Subcutaneous

Right upper Arm

OPV Booster

16-24 months

2 drops

Oral

Oral

JE-2

16-24 months

0.5 ml

Subcutaneous

Left Upper Arm

Vitamin A***

(2nd to 9th dose)

16-18 months. Then one dose every 6 months up to the age of 5 years.

2 ml

(2 lakh IU)

Oral

Oral

DPT Booster-2

5-6 years

0.5 ml.

Intramuscular

Upper Arm

TT

10 years & 16 years

0.5 ml

Intramuscular

Upper Arm

  •  *Give TT-2 or Booster doses before 36 weeks of pregnancy. However, give these even if more than 36 weeks have passed.  Give TT to a woman in labour, if she has not previously received TT.

  • **JE Vaccine is introduced in select endemic districts after the campaign.

  • *** The 2nd to 9th doses of Vitamin A can be administered to children 1 to 5 years old during biannual rounds, in collaboration with ICDS.

  • #Phased introduction, at present in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Orissa from 2016 & expanded in Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Rajasthan, and Tripura in February 2017 and planned in Tamil Nadu & Uttar Pradesh in 2017. 

  • $ Phased introduction, at present in five states namely Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Lakshadweep and Puducherry.

Indian Academy Of Pediatrics Schedule (IAP)

  • The IAP schedule of vaccines includes all those of NIS, as well as additional vaccines which are recommended and available in the country but not yet included in the NIS. 

  • These include the influenza vaccine, a quadrivalent conjugate meningococcal vaccine, etc. 

Some vaccines confer lifelong immunity in one dose. Some vaccines require multiple doses, at particular intervals, to build up immunity. No vaccine is 100% efficient in preventing a disease.

Very rarely one may develop an illness they have been vaccinated against but they experience a milder form of the disease. However, data shows that vaccines have been largely successful in widespread prevention and have significantly contributed in eliminating diseases.

General precautions before vaccination

Here are some things you are recommended to do/know when vaccinating your child.

  1. Ensure you take your baby’s vaccination record with you. Keep it safe, and get it filled at every visit. This is an important record and helps your doctor significantly if your child falls ill.

  2. Inform your doctor if your child has any pre-existing illness, allergy, or has had issues following vaccination in the past.

  3. Your doctor may ask you to wait 30 minutes after administering the vaccine to your child for monitoring.

  4. Your baby may have local reactions such as redness and pain at the injection site, and mild fever. These are usually short-lasting and self-limiting.

  5. You can continue to breastfeed or give complementary feeds even after vaccination.

  6. Contact your doctor immediately if your child has any of the following signs following a vaccine administration:

• High fever after vaccination.

• If your baby turns unresponsive or limp. This is rare.

• If your baby continuously cries for >3 hours and is inconsolable.

• If your baby has convulsions.

7. In case a vaccine is delayed or has been missed, talk to your paediatrician as soon as possible about it. The vaccination schedule is designed by taking into account the risk of exposure to a disease in between doses. It is highly recommended that you try and adhere to the schedule strictly. In case you miss a vaccine, talk to your paediatrician and get it as soon as possible.

8. If your child is unwell at a time when they are scheduled for a vaccine, discuss with your paediatrician, who on assessing your child will recommend the best possible time frame for the child to get the vaccine.

9. While most vaccinations are extremely safe, some do have the potential to cause side effects. Make sure you talk to your doctor priorly and educate yourself on the possible side effects.

10. There are several myths, rumours, and falsehoods that are spread regarding vaccines, such as the Measles vaccine causing autism, Oral Polio Vaccine causing impotence, etc. All of them have no scientific backing and contribute to poor vaccination completion, community endangerment, and child mortality from those diseases.

11. Do not panic during a vaccination visit, as it makes your child more fearful of the process. Do not use a vaccine or a doctor’s visit as means of disciplining your child. Make all efforts to ensure a comfortable visit.

References

Link for vaccination chart:

https://main.mohfw.gov.in/sites/default/files/245453521061489663873.pdf

Disclaimer: The content on this page is generic and shared only for informational and explanatory purposes. Please consult a doctor before making any health-related decisions.

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