Minus/plus icon
ResourcesExplore the full ACKO experience and make the most of your plan

Home / Health Insurance / Articles / Health Insurance for Women / Obstetrics and Gynecology: Meaning, scope, and other details

Obstetrics and Gynecology: Meaning, scope, and other details

Team AckoJan 18, 2024

From puberty to childbirth and through menopause, women go through an incredible number of changes in their bodies over the course of their lives. Obstetrics and Gynecology is a field of medicine dedicated to caring for women during every stage of their reproductive health journey. Over the years, this field has evolved to encompass much more than just pregnancy and childbirth. In this article, you will learn many facets of Obstetrics and Gynecology, along with frequently asked questions.




What is Obstetrics?

Obstetrics is a medical domain that focuses on pregnancy. It also takes care of childbirth and the postpartum period. Also, it involves the care of the mother and the child across these stages.

Obstetrics services

Here are the details on each point in relation to Obstetrics.

1. Prenatal care

Prenatal care involves regular check-ups with a doctor or midwife who will monitor the health and growth of the developing foetus.

2. Ultrasound and genetic testing

Ultrasound checks the developing foetus inside the uterus. Genetic testing is used to determine if the foetus has any chromosomal abnormalities or genetic disorders.

3. High-risk pregnancy management

With high-risk pregnancies, medical professionals closely monitor the progress of the pregnancy to ensure the health of the mother and baby.

4. Nutrition and exercise recommendations

Proper diet and regular exercise during pregnancy are important to the health of the mother and developing baby.

5. Labour and delivery

Obstetricians and midwives help manage the process of labour and delivery, including monitoring the health of the mother and baby, determining when to start pushing, and making decisions about pain management.

6. Natural delivery vs. C-section

Obstetricians and midwives can discuss the pros and cons of natural delivery versus a C-section and help the mother make an informed decision.

7. Pain management options

There are various pain management options available during labour and delivery, including medication, epidurals, and relaxation techniques.

8. Induction of labour

Induction of labour may be necessary if the mother or baby's health is at risk, or if the pregnancy has gone past the due date.

9. Postpartum period

Medical professionals monitor the health of the mother and baby after delivery to ensure a healthy recovery. This includes monitoring for any postpartum complications, such as infections or excessive bleeding.

10. Breastfeeding support and advice

Obstetricians, midwives, and lactation consultants can provide support and advice for breastfeeding, including helping with latching techniques and addressing any breastfeeding challenges or concerns.

11. Postpartum depression screening

Medical professionals screen for postpartum depression and can provide support and treatment if necessary.

12. Contraception options after pregnancy

Obstetricians and midwives can discuss contraception options with new mothers and provide advice on safe and effective methods to use after pregnancy.

13. Foetal monitoring

Medical professionals monitor the foetal heart rate and contractions during labour to ensure the health of the baby.

14. Neonatal care

After delivery, medical professionals continue to monitor and care for the newborn, ensuring that they are healthy and meeting developmental milestones.

15, Fertility counselling

Obstetricians and other medical professionals can provide counselling and information to couples who are struggling with fertility issues.

16. Gynaecological exams

Gynaecological exams are also a part of obstetrics services and involve regular check-ups, Pap smears, and other screenings to monitor women's reproductive health. These exams can detect early signs of cancer or other health issues and ensure proper reproductive health throughout a woman's life. Also, obstetricians can provide advice and support for family planning and help women make informed decisions about their reproductive health.

What is Gynecology?

Gynecology refers to a field that focuses on the female reproductive system. It covers several topics, including the following.

1. Reproductive health

This may involve discussing menstrual cycles, vaginal discharge, and sexual activity, and addressing any related concerns.

2. Female anatomy and physiology

The study of female anatomy includes the reproductive system as well as other organs like the bladder, kidneys, and intestines. Understanding female physiology helps doctors understand how hormones and other factors may affect reproductive health.

3. Infertility diagnosis and treatment

Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of trying. Gynaecologists can order tests to diagnose infertility and help couples explore treatment options such as fertility medications, intrauterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilisation (IVF).

4. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) testing and treatment

Gynaecologists can test for and treat sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and HPV. They can also provide education on safe sex practices to prevent STIs.

5. Menstrual cycle and disorders

Gynaecologists can help women manage irregular, heavy, or painful periods, and diagnose and treat disorders such as endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

6. Menopause management

Gynaecologists can help women manage symptoms of menopause. They can also discuss hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and other treatment options.

7. Family planning and contraception

Gynaecologists can provide guidance on family planning and help women choose the best contraceptive method for their needs. This may include discussing options such as intrauterine devices (IUDs), hormonal methods, and barrier methods.

8. Birth control options

Gynaecologists can discuss various options for birth control, including hormonal and non-hormonal methods.

9. Intrauterine devices (IUDs)

IUDs are a long-acting, reversible form of birth control that can be inserted into the uterus. Gynaecologists can discuss the benefits and risks of IUDs and help women choose the best option for their individual needs.

10. Hormonal methods

Hormonal methods include birth control pills, patches, and injections. These methods release hormones that prevent pregnancy by suppressing ovulation.

11. Barrier methods

Barrier methods consist of condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps. These methods work by physically blocking sperm from reaching the egg.

12. Gynaecological cancers

Gynaecological cancers include cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar cancers. Gynaecologists can provide screening and prevention strategies, as well as discuss treatment options.

13. Screening and prevention

Screening tests for cervical and ovarian cancer can help detect these cancers early. Gynaecologists can also discuss risk factors and prevention strategies for gynaecological cancers

14. Types of gynaecological cancers

Cervical cancer is caused due to the human papillomavirus and can be prevented with the related vaccine. Ovarian cancer does not show symptoms in its early stages, so screening is important for early detection. Uterine cancer is usually detected through abnormal bleeding or pelvic pain. Vaginal and vulvar cancers are less common but still important to monitor.

15. Treatment options

Treatment for gynaecological cancers may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Gynaecologists can discuss the best options for their patients based on the type and stage of cancer. They can also provide support and resources for managing side effects of treatment.

The role of an Obstetrician-Gynecologist (OB-GYN)

An Obstetrician-Gynecologist, commonly known as an OB-GYN, is a medical professional that specialises in women's reproductive health. They provide medical and surgical care to women, and may also deliver babies.

OB-GYNs are responsible for a variety of tasks, such as performing routine checkups and exams, diagnosing and treating reproductive health issues, and providing family planning services. They also provide care and support during pregnancy and childbirth, and may perform surgical procedures related to reproductive health.

Benefits of seeing an OB-GYN

Regular visits to an OB-GYN can provide several benefits for women, which are as follows.

  • Early detection of gynaecological diseases and conditions

  • Screening for breast and cervical cancer

  • Family planning and birth control options

  • Reproductive and fertility health check-ups

  • Menopause management and hormone therapy

  • Education on sexual health and STI prevention

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some FAQs related to Obstetrics and Gynecology.


What kind of services do Obstetricians and Gynecologists provide?

Obstetricians and Gynecologists provide several services, such as routine medical exams, pap smears, prenatal care, ultrasounds, and family planning advice. They also diagnose and treat various reproductive health issues, such as infertility, sexually transmitted infections, and menstrual irregularities.

What should I expect during my first appointment with an Obstetrician or Gynecologist?

During your first appointment with an Obstetrician or Gynecologist, you should expect to provide a detailed medical history and undergo a physical exam. 

How often should I see my Obstetrician or Gynecologist?

It is recommended that women see their Obstetrician or Gynecologist at least once a year. If you are pregnant, you will need to see your doctor more frequently for prenatal care. Women who are experiencing reproductive health issues may need to see their doctor more often as well. 

Can Obstetricians and Gynecologists perform surgeries?

Yes, Obstetricians and Gynecologists are trained to perform a variety of surgeries related to the female reproductive system. 

Should I see an Obstetrician or a Gynaecologist for my reproductive health needs?

Both Obstetricians and Gynecologists are trained to provide care for women's reproductive health needs. Obstetricians tend to focus more on pregnancy and childbirth, while Gynecologists focus more on the female reproductive system in general. Depending on your individual needs, your doctor may refer you to one or the other, or may provide both types of care themselves.


Disclaimer: The content on this page is generic and shared only for informational and explanatory purposes. Please consult a doctor before making any health-related decisions.


Want to post any comments?


Prioritize Women's Health with Comprehensive Coverage! 👩‍⚕️💖

✅ 100% Room Rent Covered* ✅ Zero deductions at claims ✅ 7100+ Cashless Hospitals

quote icon

Check health insurance

quote icon