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Overview of Nipple Discharge: Meaning, symptoms, causes & treatment

Team AckoJan 17, 2024

Nipple Discharge (ND) refers to any fluid that comes out of the nipple of the breast. It can be clear, milky, or even bloody in colour. Sometimes, it can occur spontaneously, while other times, it may only come out when the nipple is squeezed. It can also be a sign of an underlying medical condition, so it is vital to know its signs, causes and treatment options.




Types of Nipple Discharge

There are mainly four types of ND, which are as follows.

  • Clear discharge: This is the most common type of ND and is usually not a cause for concern.

  • Bloody discharge: This can be due to an injury or infection in the breast, but can also be a sign of breast cancer.

  • Yellow or green discharge: This can be a sign of an infection, particularly if there is also pain or redness in the breast.

  • Milky discharge: This is commonly associated with pregnancy or breastfeeding, but can also be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

Common causes of Nipple Discharge

Here is a list of factors that lead to Nipple Discharge.

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding: Milky discharge is common during these times as the body produces milk.

  • Hormonal imbalances: High levels of oestrogen or prolactin can lead to ND outside of pregnancy or breastfeeding.

  • Infections: Infections such as mastitis or abscesses can cause ND accompanied by pain, redness, and swelling.

  • Injuries: Damage to the breast or nipple, such as from surgery or trauma.

  • Breast cancer: While ND is not always a sign of breast cancer, it can be a symptom in some cases. It is important to seek medical attention if the discharge is bloody or persistent.

  • Medications: Certain medications, such as birth control pills, can cause hormonal imbalances that lead to ND.

Risk factors for Nipple Discharge

There are several risk factors that can increase the likelihood of experiencing ND, which are as follows.

  • Older women are more likely to experience ND)

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding

  • Certain medications (such as birth control pills or antidepressants)

  • Breast surgery or trauma

  • Hormonal imbalances

  • Infections or other medical conditions

Diagnosis of Nipple Discharge

The diagnostic process for ND can involve several methods, including the following.

  • Medical history: A thorough medical history is taken to understand the patient's symptoms, including the duration and nature of the ND. The doctor may also ask about the patient's family history of breast cancer or other related conditions.

  • Physical examination: The doctor examines the breasts, nipples, and surrounding areas for signs of lumps, swelling, discharge patterns, or other abnormalities.

  • Imaging tests: Mammogram, ultrasound or MRI may be needed to take pictures of the breast in order to detect any masses or structural changes.

  • Laboratory tests: Breast fluid analysis is carried out to determine the composition and characteristics of the discharge. Blood tests may also be conducted to check for hormonal imbalances.

  • Biopsy: If imaging tests or laboratory tests suggest the presence of a mass or abnormal cells, a biopsy may be necessary. During a biopsy, a small tissue sample is taken from the breast for further analysis to determine if breast cancer or other serious conditions are present.

Treatment of Nipple Discharge

When it comes to treating ND, the course of action depends on the root cause of the issue. Here are some common causes and their respective treatments.

  • Hormonal imbalances: If hormonal imbalances cause ND, medications can be prescribed to regulate hormone levels. Treatment may involve birth control pills or other hormone therapies.

  • Infections: If infections are the cause of the ND, antibiotics may be prescribed to clear up the infection. Your healthcare provider may also recommend warm compresses or other therapies to help alleviate discomfort.

  • Breast cancer: If breast cancer is to blame for ND, the course of treatment will depend on the stage of cancer. Surgery to remove the cancerous tissue may be necessary, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Prevention of Nipple Discharge

Listed below are some tips to prevent Nipple Discharge.

  • Regular breast self-exams: Breast self-examination is an essential part of breast health awareness. It helps identify any changes in breast tissue, including the nipple area. This regular checkup will enable the timely detection of any issues, like ND.

  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle: Healthy habits such as a balanced diet, regular exercise, and stress management techniques help to maintain physical and mental health, which contributes to overall breast health.

  • Avoiding certain medications or substances that can cause Nipple Discharge: Some medications may cause ND as a side effect. It is important to discuss any medications you are taking with your healthcare provider. Substances like alcohol and caffeine should also be consumed in moderation, as they may contribute to Nipple Discharge. Avoiding these substances or limiting their consumption can help prevent ND.

Step-by-step guide to perform a breast self-exam to detect Nipple Discharge early

Breast self-exams are important for detecting Nipple Discharge early. Here's how to perform one.

  • Begin by standing in front of a mirror with your hands on your hips.

  • Look for any changes in the size, shape, or colour of your breasts or nipples.

  • Next, raise your arms above your head and look for the same changes.

  • Lie down and use your fingers to feel for any lumps or abnormalities in your breasts or under your arms.

  • Finally, squeeze each nipple gently to check for any discharge.

Remember to perform a self-exam frequently and contact your doctor if you notice any changes or abnormalities.

Frequently asked questions

Listed below are some commonly asked questions regarding ND


When should I be concerned about Nipple Discharge?

Nipple Discharge is normal in some cases, such as during pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, it can also be a sign of an underlying condition. You should seek medical attention if the discharge is bloody or clear and sticky, spontaneous and coming from one breast only, accompanied by a lump or swelling in the breast, and associated with nipple pain, redness, or fever.

How often should women perform a breast self-exam?

It is recommended that women perform a breast self-exam once a month.

What to look for during a breast self-exam?

You should look for any lumps or changes in the size, shape, or texture of your breasts.

When to schedule the first mammogram?

Women should schedule their first mammogram at age 40, or earlier if they have a family history of breast cancer.

How often should one get a mammogram?

Women should get a mammogram every one to two years, depending on their age and risk factors.

Can certain medications cause Nipple Discharge?

Yes, certain medications such as birth control pills, antidepressants, and blood pressure medications, may cause Nipple Discharge.

Is Nipple Discharge always a sign of breast cancer?

No, Nipple Discharge is not always a sign of breast cancer. It can be caused by many different things, and in most cases, it is not a cause for concern. However, it is important to speak with your doctor if you experience ND so they can determine the cause and rule out any potential health issues.

Can stress or anxiety cause Nipple Discharge?

No, stress and anxiety are not known to cause Nipple Discharge.

What are some natural ways to stop breast discharge?

Here are some natural ways to stop breast discharge.

  • Apply a warm compress to your breasts.

  • Wear a well-fitting and supportive bra.

  • Try taking vitamin B6 or evening primrose oil supplements.

  • Limit your intake of caffeine and chocolate.

  • Reduce stress through relaxation techniques like yoga or meditation.

Should I be concerned if my Nipple Discharge is only from one breast?

It's always a good idea to speak with your doctor if you experience Nipple Discharge, regardless of whether it is from one breast or both. However, if you are experiencing ND from only one breast, it could be a sign of a problem such as a blockage in the milk duct or a growth in the breast.

Is yellow Nipple Discharge a sign of breast cancer?

There's no easy way to know if a yellow nipple is a sign of breast cancer without getting a proper diagnosis. However, yellow Nipple Discharge can be a symptom of several conditions, including breast infections and even some medications.

What are some medications to treat Nipple Discharge?

If your Nipple Discharge is caused by a hormonal imbalance, your doctor may prescribe medications to help regulate your hormones. Some common options include birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and medications that block the production of certain hormones.


Disclaimer: The content on this page is generic and shared only for informational and explanatory purposes. Please consult a doctor before making any health-related decisions.


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