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Top 10 Signs of Infertility in Women

Team AckoFeb 8, 2024

Infertility is a vast term and depends on many factors. In simple words, infertility means when someone is not able to get pregnant even after trying unprotected sex for six months or a year. Female infertility can result from hormonal factors, age, physical problems, environmental factors, etc. We're going to discuss some aspects of it below:



Experiencing pain during intercourse:

Pain during intercourse or immediately after having sex is the pain or the discomfort that females experience in her labial, vaginal or valvular area. This is one of the main signs of infertility. This condition is known as dyspareunia, which means difficulty in mating or badly mating. Now, the causes can be due to the thinning or dryness of the vaginal walls due to menopause, due to any sexually transmitted disease, any skin condition, or due to a urinary tract condition. The reason can be many but the result is infertility.

Irregular menstrual cycle:

Regular menstruation is necessary for females for the ovulation. Ovulation is when the ovary releases the egg and that egg unites with the sperm to get divided and later on form an embryo. Regular menstruation means that the time between the two periods is roughly the same and that is there are no missed periods. Irregular periods can be due to many issues such as PCOS, obesity, or just being overweight and thyroid problems.

Heavy or very short menstrual cycles:

The flow is normally lighter on the first day and heavier on the second and the third day. But some females experience too short and less flow while few experience very heavy and painful ones. Both the conditions are not normal and in both cases, there are some underlying problems that can result in infertility.

Hormonal fluctuations:

Hormonal changes are the main reason behind infertility. These may not be noticed or known by the person. Some of them include unexplained weight gain, severe acne, cold extremities, reduced sex drive, discharge from the nipples, facial hair growth in a short period. Luckily, hormonal imbalance can be corrected with medication, so as soon as the symptoms are known, you need to go to your doctor for the medication.

No periods:

Menses are necessary to get pregnant. As regular mensuration makes the ovary release the egg on time and that can unite with the sperm to form the embryo.


Women having heavy and painful periods may be showing the signs of endometriosis. It is a condition in which the tissues found in the womb are generally found elsewhere in the womb. Endometriosis is a risk factor for infertility.

Other symptoms of endometriosis include:

Chronic pelvic pain excluding menstruation days

Painful intercourse or pain after it

Back pain



Spotting or irregular menses

Bowel problems

In many cases, it is treatable, so better not to avoid the symptoms and approach your doctor about it as soon as possible.

Medical conditions:

Conditions like damage to the fallopian tubes, cancer or PCOS can lead to infertility. Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes block the passage of the sperm and stop them from getting to the egg or may also block the passage of the fertilized egg into the uterus. There are several causes of damage or blockage of the fallopian tubes such as:

PID: Pelvic inflammatory disease is the infection or the swelling of the uterus and the fallopian tubes due to gonorrhea, chlamydia or any other sexually transmitted diseases.

Any previous surgery can also be one of the reasons behind the damage of the fallopian tubes, which include the surgery for the ectopic pregnancy, in which a fertilized egg develops in the fallopian tube rather than the uterus.

Pelvic Tuberculosis is also a major cause of infertility in many countries.


It is a very common factor that causes infertility in many females as being overweight or significantly being underweight can affect the ovulation and thus, fertility. A healthy body mass index is always suggested by the doctors to conceive easily.


Age is also a very strong sign that indicates infertility as the quality or the quantity of the female eggs start to decline with age. In the mid-30s there is an increase in follicle loss and thus, it results in poorer and fewer quality eggs and the chances of pregnancy decrease and risks of miscarriages increase.

Bad habits

Alcohol intake and smoking can also hinder a female from getting pregnant and affect her fertility. Smoking can not only damage the fallopian tubes but also increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy or miscarriages.

That being said, sometimes the cause of the infertility is never found. A combination of little factors in both the partners could lead to unexplained infertility. Sometimes everything seems perfect, yet, there is no luck with conceiving. Although there might be no specific answer for some time, the problem resolves with time. Meanwhile, you need to get treatment if you experience any of the aforementioned signs of infertility.

Disclaimer: This content is for informational purposes only, based on industry experience and secondary sources. It is not a substitute for professional advice. Please consult a qualified expert for health or insurance-related decisions. Content is subject to change, refer to current policy wordings for specific ACKO details.



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