There are several types of White Blood Cells in the body, each of these cells have a specific function. Learn how the Absolute Eosinophil Count Calculator helps keep a count.
Absolute Eosinophil Count is a measure of eosinophils in your blood. It can be calculated using parameters that are available in a Complete Blood Count (CBC) or Haemogram test.
The body has a group of cells called White Blood Cells (WBCs) which are components of the immune system. The normal count of total WBCs is between 4,000 - 11,000 cells per microlitre of blood. There are several types of White Blood Cells in the body, like Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes, and Lymphocytes. Each of these cells has a specific function contributing to the overall immune status of the body.
Eosinophils are one such type of WBCs. Also called Acidophils, the name comes from the fact that these cells are stained with the acidic dye Eosin when the blood sample is prepared for study under the microscope. These cells form 1-3% of all white blood cells in the bloodstream normally.
The Absolute Eosinophil Count Calculator is an online tool, which can be used if it is featured on a reliable website or a mobile app.
The count is expressed as the number of cells per microlitre of blood. Doing a CBC (Complete Blood Count) or Haemogram will provide the values required for this calculation. It can measure the total number of white blood cells, also called leukocytes. Along with this, the percentage of eosinophils among the WBCs will also be mentioned.
Range (Number Of Cells/Microlitre)
Less Than 45
More Than 500
More Than 1500
Total WBC count is 8,000 cells/microlitre
Eosinophil percentage is 2%
Absolute Eosinophil Count = 8000 x 2% = 8000 x 2/100 = 160
Hence, the count is 160 cells per microlitre of blood.
Here are the functions of Eosinophils.
Moderating immune reactions against parasitic infections (worm/helminth infections)
Mediating allergic responses & asthmatic reactions (along with mast cells and basophils)
Fighting certain viral and fungal infections
Eosinophils play an important role in asthma, and their concentrations can be correlated to the severity of the disease. Similarly, they mediate other allergic responses in the body. The accumulation of eosinophils in the mucosa of the nose is correlated with a diagnosis of hay fever or allergic rhinitis.
Helminths (parasitic worms) are a group of organisms that cause mainly gastrointestinal diseases. These include tapeworms, roundworms, and flukes. There are numerous species, and most of them enter the gastrointestinal tract through the consumption of food & water that are contaminated with faecal matter. They can also burrow to nearby organs and cause damage to those organs. The immune response to these infections is mediated by eosinophils, & T cells (a type of lymphocytes). An elevated eosinophil count can be seen in these cases.
When eosinophil count is elevated over 500 cells per microlitre, this condition is called Eosinophilia. This is most often indicative of a parasitic infection or an allergic response in the body. Less commonly, it can be due to some types of cancer.
Eosinophilia can be either blood eosinophilia or tissue eosinophilia, depending on the site of sampling.
Causes of eosinophilia include the following.
Parasitic infections - ascariasis, filariasis, trichinosis etc.
Eczema (atopic dermatitis)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease)
Leukaemia (Acute Myeloid Leukaemia)
Cancers of other organs like ovarian cancer
When eosinophil counts exceed 1500 cells per microlitre, it's called Hypereosinophilia. When this sustains for a period of several months, it is referred to as Hypereosinophilic Syndrome. This is a group of disorders, which can be due to a problem with the production & metabolism of the cells (Primary Hypereosinophilia) or as a response to some disease process (Secondary Hypereosinophilia). These excess eosinophils can cause multi organ damage, resulting in life threatening situations if left untreated. The organs that can be affected by this include skin, heart lungs, nervous system & digestive tract.
When eosinophil counts are less than 45 cells per microlitre, this condition is called Eosinopenia. It is associated with several conditions like the following.
Use of steroids
Use of medications that treat eosinophil-associated conditions like eosinophilic asthma
In some patients with COVID-19 infection
Calculating the count is an important measure for the diagnosis and management of several conditions such as asthma and allergies. Doctors often advise other investigations such as immunoglobulin levels, urine, and stool examination along with it.
Some people have an allergic diathesis. This means they are more prone to develop asthma, atopic dermatitis (sensitive skin with episodes of rashes), and allergic rhinitis or hay fever (with cold, runny nose, etc.). Your doctor can teach you how to avoid allergens that can trigger these conditions and give you medication for the same.
Disclaimer: The content on this page is generic and shared only for informational and explanatory purposes. Please consult a doctor before making any health-related decisions.